Who is Marcel Duchamp

Full name: Henri-Robert-Marchel-Duchamp

Born-Death: 1887.7.28-1968.10.2

Birthplace: France Blainville

Famous Works: Fountain(1917), L.H.O.O.Q(1919), Fresh Widow(1920),  Rotary Demisphere (Precision Optics) (1925)

  He is one of the main figures of the Dadaism movement. In his early days, he was influenced by  Redon Odilon’s  early works genres such Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. So eventually, Duchamp created paintings in his early years such as the <Nude Descending the Staircase 2>.

Then, he created the concept of ‘readymade’ which is the art of using objects such as bicycle wheels or the mens’ urinal-which are already made as a final product. It was revolutionary. One of the well-known works of readymade is the fountain in 1917.

Introducing to Dadaism

Also called as dada. The origin of the term ‘dada’ comes from the toy horse in French, but this hints the meaning of meaningless.
Dadaism is not only used to explain arts, but also includes literature and music. Dadaism is the root of Fluxus, Neo-Dada, and Nouveau which is all considered as genres of anti-art. The Dada movement first started in 1916 Zurich during World War One, by a groups of poets and writers. They denied all the art forms and the values of the past, and praised the irrational and immoral things. They insisted that a new artist should protest. They should not draw what is already explained and known, but they create something with stones, wood, or metal. They thought that instead of staying in a comfortable state, they have to keep on achieving new goals.Zurich Dadaism lasted until 1920, and in the meantime, the magazine <Dada> was published, and many abstraction poetry were made.

Dadaism in Germany prospered in  3 main cities- Berlin, Cologne, and Hannover. Because Berlin was the center of politics, unlike Zurich, Dadaism appeared to have a revolutionary atmosphere and came up with new techniques such as ‘assambleuse'(a combination of different objets) and ‘photo-montage'(2 or more pictures overlapped or double exposed to make a visual effect). Dadaism in Berlin started in 1918 and lasted until 1933.

For Dadaism, there are some famous works such as ‘Fountain’ and ‘LHOOQ’,which is also know as the Mona Lisa with a mustache, by Marcel Duchamp.

+ Neo Dadaism
a experimental art movement started from America after WW2, meaning ‘the new Dadaism.

References
Naver 지식백과:http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=1167071&cid=40942&categoryId=32856
The Art History: http://www.theartstory.org/movement-dada.htm
How the old art was destroyed by Dada

How the Old Art was destroyed by Dada

56-144388-440px-hugo-ball-cabaret-voltaireDada movement started in Switzerland during the 1st World War. It is believed to have inspired Fluxus, Neo-Dada and Nouveau which were all considered as anti-art. Dadaists opposed intellectual and cultural conformity in art. For everything that art approved, Dada disapproved it.

Where art stood for traditional aesthetic, Dadaists disregarded aesthetic completely. If art intended to appeal sensibilities, Dada intention was to offend it. Through their hate for traditional aesthetic and culture, Dada movement hoped to destroy traditional aesthetic and culture. Within Dada, the Berlin Dada was more radical and politicized. In 1919, the Berlin group listed the Dadaist principles of radical communism.

In 1913, Marcel Duchamp challenged creativity and stated that art was nominal rather than an essential object. Tristan Tzara , a Dadaist, thought that logic was always false. Therefore, he stated that unless society change the way it ways of doings things, there would be no achievement of any kind in society.

Dada movement began in 1919 in Russian. It opposed art and specifically believed that art was not universal aesthetic activity. In 1921, Alexander Rodchenko made monochromes and announced the end of painting. For artists in Russia, Rodchenko’s actions had traits of utopian possibility. The radical actions did not only mark the end of art but also changed bourgeois practices and norms. In Russia, mode of production changed and a new culture began.

Economics as per the Political Elites

Considering the state of global economy, there is much debate on are countries running their own economic model or are they inclined towards the capitalist model which the West has been using for over five decades now. The overall argument comes to a conclusion, which includes the use of economic laws, which are beneficial for the political elites, rather than those ordinary citizens who pay the heavy burden of taxes.

If we go through the historical lens, Europe favored the wealthy creditors, who held the real money, unlike the Americans, who favored democratic upliftment through laws that favored the masses. But after the Great Depression, many of the European and American bankers found it hard to balance laws which may help wealthy individuals keep on investing, while ensuring the ordinary had enough to spend. To ensure full employment, which to date is a dream to achieve, those who followed the Keynes economic models, allowed governments to spend on the fracture to increase employment. But as the gold standard started to disappear in the seventies, bankers shifted their focus to interest and inflation rates. Here came the era of powerful central bankers, Alan Greenspan being the biggest and strongest of them.

After the financial crisis of 2007, much of the global economics have changed. Many have started to follow what the masses wish, Donald trump, for instance, trying to do the same by imposing near fifty percent tariff on the Chinese imports. But the debate still remains, is the economics being done for the political elites or the ordinary. The answer will be political elites as much of the taxes are still paid by ordinary citizens, while the wealthy get bailouts and are even stronger. Investment Banks being the biggest example, no matter how hard they fall, the ordinary economics will always be there to help save and bail them out afterall.