What is a Spreadsheet?

A spreadsheet is a computer program or application that allows the user to arrange and collate data. Also referred to as a worksheet, a spreadsheet is made up of columns and rows that help to sort data, organize data, and calculate numerical data.
The ability to calculate values using the data in cells and mathematical formulas is what makes a spreadsheet program unique. Spreadsheet enables users to adjust any stored value and note the effects on calculated values. For example, a spreadsheet may be used to create an overview of an individual’s bank’s balance.
Spreadsheets have completely replaced paper-based systems in the business world. Even though they were first developed for bookkeeping or accounting tasks, today they are used widely in any setting where tabular lists are made, sorted, and shared.
Besides performing arithmetic and mathematical functions, spreadsheets offer built-in functions for common statistical and financial operations. Below are several uses of spreadsheets:
Finance– spreadsheets are best for financial data, such as checking account information, transactions, and budgets.
Forms–form templates are created to handle evaluation, inventory, quizzes, performance reviews, and surveys.
School and grades—teacher use spreadsheets to calculate grade, track students, and identify any relevant data.

What is Graph Theory?

In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures that show the relation between variable quantities. A graph is made up of vertices, points, or nodes which are connected by arcs, lines, or edges. In discrete mathematics, graphs are one of the main objects of study.
Graphs are used to model numerous types of processes and relations in biological, physical, social and information systems. Graphs can be used to represent many real-world problems. Emphasizing their application to practical systems, the term network is occasionally defined to mean graphs in which attributes are associated with the edges and nodes.
In computer science, graphs are mainly used to represent data organization, networks of communication, the flow of computation, computational devices, etc. For example, a website link structure can be represented by a directed graph. In this case, directed edges will represent links from one page to another, and the vertices will represent web pages. A similar approach can be used to represent problems in biology, social media, computer chip design, travel, and many other fields. Therefore, the development of algorithms that handle graphs is of major interest in computer science.

World Maths Day: An International Mathematics Competition

World Maths Day is an online international mathematics competition that is powered by educational resource provider 3P Learning. It is an annual event that encourages thousands of students to take a break from standard mathematics lessons; instead, they participate in competitive math-themed games. Students who take part in the games have a chance to win prizes and certificates. The aim is to help raise numeracy standards.
Since it was first held on March 14, 2007, World Maths Day has been held the 1st Wednesday in March in every year. Despite the origins, the phrases “World Math Day” and “World Maths Day” are trademarks and should not be confused with other days such as Pi Day or competitions such as the International Mathematical Olympiad. World Maths Day made a Guinness World Record for the Largest Online Maths Competition in 2010.
In 2011, the team behind World Maths Day added a second event known as World Spelling Day. The event was later rebranded the World Education Games. World Science Day, the third event, was added in 2012. World Education Games and World Maths Day are now sponsored by Samsung.
Since it was founded, the World Maths Day has seen its popularity grow fast. It links schools from many parts of the world. Children as young as five years participate, competing against others from overseas in real time. This year, the event took place on 14th March 2017.


Introduction to Probability

Probability is the study of the likelihood of an event happening. Simply, it is how likely something is to happen. Probability plays a role in all activities, directly or indirectly. For example, we may say that tomorrow will probably be sunny because most of the days we have observed were sunny days.
Many events cannot be predicted with certainty. When people are unsure about the outcome of an event, they can talk about the probabilities of specific outcomes—their likelihood. The analysis of events that are governed by probability is known as statistics.
To understand probability, the best example is flipping a coin. There are two possible outcomes: tails (T) and heads (H). What is the probability of the coin landing on Tails or Head? The probability of the coin landing T is ½, and the probability of the coin landing H is ½. Another example that can help you understand probability is throwing a dice. When a die is thrown, there are six possible outcomes. The probability of any one of them is 1/6.
In general, the probability of an event = (Number of ways it can occur) / (total number of outcomes).
These lessons on probability often include the following topics: the probability of events, samples in probability, theoretical probability, probability problems, experimental probability, tree diagrams, independent events, mutually exclusive events, dependent events, permutations, factorial, combinations, probability, probability in statistics, and combinatorics.


What is Combinatorial Game Theory?

Combinatorial game theory is a branch of theoretical computer science and mathematics that studies sequential games. The study has been mainly confined to two-player games with a position in which players take turn changing. Traditionally, the combinational game theory has not studied games of chance or games that use incomplete or imperfect information, favoring games that provide complete information in which set of available moves and state of the game is always known by both players. As mathematical techniques advance, however, the types of games that can be analyzed mathematically expands, therefore, the boundaries of the field are constantly changing.
Examples of combinatorial games are Go, Checkers, Chess, and Tic-tac-toe. The first three games are categorized as non-trivial while the last one is categorized as trivia. In combinatorial game theory, the moves in these games are represented as a game tree. Some one-player combinatorial puzzles (such as Sudoku) and no-player automata (such as Conway’s Game of Life) are also categorized as combinatorial games.
In general, game theory includes games of imperfect knowledge, games of chance, and games in which player’s moves simultaneously, tending to represent actual decision-making situations.
An important notion in combinatorial game theory is that of solved game. Tic-tac-toe, for example, is considered a solved game because it can be established that if both players play optimally, a game will result in a draw.

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