What is Graph Theory?

In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures that show the relation between variable quantities. A graph is made up of vertices, points, or nodes which are connected by arcs, lines, or edges. In discrete mathematics, graphs are one of the main objects of study.
Graphs are used to model numerous types of processes and relations in biological, physical, social and information systems. Graphs can be used to represent many real-world problems. Emphasizing their application to practical systems, the term network is occasionally defined to mean graphs in which attributes are associated with the edges and nodes.
In computer science, graphs are mainly used to represent data organization, networks of communication, the flow of computation, computational devices, etc. For example, a website link structure can be represented by a directed graph. In this case, directed edges will represent links from one page to another, and the vertices will represent web pages. A similar approach can be used to represent problems in biology, social media, computer chip design, travel, and many other fields. Therefore, the development of algorithms that handle graphs is of major interest in computer science.

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